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General description Essential quaternary ammonium salt important in cholesterol metabolism.
Found - green leafy vegetables
- fish
- peanuts, soybeans
- organ meat
- yeast
- wheat germ
- lecithin
- eggs, milk
Anti-aging role - manufacture of acetiylcholin
- lower cholesterol levels
- lower blood homocysteine level
- sintethase VLDL and phospholipids that build cell membrane
- anticancer properties
- important for amino and fatty acids metabolism
- prevent neural tube defects in fetus during pregnancy
Deficiency symptoms - fatty liver and liver damage (non-alcoholic fatty liver disease)
- metabolic syndrome
- long-term - cirrhosis of the liver
- increased production of reactive oxygen species
Therapeutic doses RDA for men: 550 mg
RDA for women: 400 mg
Maximum safe level 3,5 g
Side effects - excessive doses: abdominal pain, nausea, diarrhea.
- doses upward of 9 g / day - depression
- 10 - 16 g/day - "fishy" smell of the body, increased sweating and salivation
High risk groups - vegans
- patients on parenteral diet
Composition formulas - as citicholine (CPD-choline) or choline salts (chloride, bitartarate)
- in combination with vitamin B complex
Other remarks - small amount of choline is synthesized in organism