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Supplement information: COPPER
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General description Essential trace element important to catalyze oxido-reduction reactions.
Found - nuts (europian, indian)
- chestnuts
- almonds
- peanuts
- sunflower and sesame seeds
- organ meat (veal liver)
- seafood (crustaceans and shellfish)
- mushrooms
- chocolate
- legumes
- green and leafy vegetables
Anti-aging role - copper is able to form hemoglobin
- required in melanin formation
- lower cholesterol level
- prevent rancidity of fatty acids
- maintain cellular structure
- increase level of the SOD
- participates in formation of collagen and elastin
Deficiency symptoms - anemia
- loss of hair, loss of the taste
- general weakness
- impaired respiration such as emphysema
- brittle bones
- chronic or recurrent diarrhea
- hair depigmentation
- low white blood cell count
- retarded growth
- water retention
- irritability
- high cholesterol
- development of ishemic heart disease
- miscarriage, birth defects, neural tube defects
- increased risk of colon cancer
Therapeutic doses 2 - 3 mg taken with zinc (ratio: zinc: copper 10: 1 - 15: 1)
American RDA: 2 mg
European RDA: 1 mg
Maximum safe level 5 mg long - term usage
8 mg short - term usage
Side effects Doses of 10 mg and above may cause stomach ache, nausea, muscle pain.

- occurs after consumption contaminated food or water
- symptoms: abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
Interactions - penicillin increases copper urine excretion
- zinc enhance production of copper - binding protein
High risk groups - premature infants fed only with cow milk and formulas based on cow milk
- premature infants and infants with low body weight
- infants and kids with prolonged diarrhea
- infants and kids recovering from malnutrition
- people with malabsoption syndrome
- people with choelic disease and sprue
- people with short bowel syndrome
- patients with full parenteral diet
- people with high degree burns
Composition formulas - supplements available in form of copper oxide, glutathione, sulfate and amino acid chelates
- usually in combination with vitamins and other minerals
Other remarks - insoluble in water
- it is stored in liver