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Supplement information: CALCIUM
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General description Soluble in solvents such as alcohol and other dilute acids
Found - milk, yogurt
- egg yolk
- fish (sardine, salmon)
- soybeans, soy milk
- almonds
- green leafy vegetables (kale, broccoli)
- sesame seeds
- tofu
Anti-aging role - transmission of nerve impulses
- regulation of muscle contraction and relaxation
- regulation of blood clotting
- regulation of metabolic activities
- prevent osteoporosis, rickets, osteomalacia
- lower high blood pressure
- lower cholesterol level
- natural tranquilizing effects
- prevent colorectal cancer
Deficiency symptoms - nervous spasms
- facial twitching
- weak feeling muscles, cramps
- rickets, osteoporosis, osteomalacia
- slow growth in children
- heart palpitation
- slow pulse rate
- height reduction
- colon cancer
- convulsion

- the most common cause of calcium deficiency is parathyroid gland disorder, chronic kidney disease, vitamin D deficiency, alcoholism
Therapeutic doses 1000 - 1500 mg
RDA 19 - 50 year: 1000 mg
RDA 51 - over: 1200 mg
Pregnancy: 1200 mg
European RDA: 800 mg
Maximum safe level 1500 mg - long term usage
1900 mg - short term usage
Side effects - associated with high doses and usually in combinations with calcium antacids

- constipation
- diarrhea
- dry mouth
- increase thirst
- increase frequency of urination
- persistent headache
- loss of appetite
- nausea, vomiting
- irregular heartbeat
- persisting itching
- mental changes

- people with hypercalciemia have increased risk of kidney stones
Contraindications - kidney and thyroid disease
- thiazide diuretics
- intravenous calcium supplements decrease calcium channels blockers
- calcium supplementation and eating calcium - rich food at the same time may decrease tetracycline, quinolones, biophosphonates, and levothyroxine absorption
- simultaneously usage of H2 blockers and proton pumps blockers may decrease calcium absorption from calcium carbonate and phosphate
- glucocorticoide therapy may decrease intestinal calcium absorption

- vitamin D is essential for normal calcium absorption
- high sodium intake increase urine calcium secretion
- high protein intake increase calcium absorption, but also increase urine calcium secretion
- phosphorus increase calcium secretion
- phosphorus and calcium salts can not be absorbed
- caffeine increase urine calcium secretion
High risk groups - pregnant and lactating women
- women in menopause, premenopause and postmenopause
- children, adolescents
- women using child birth pills based on estrogen
- patients using glucocorticoids
- people with acute pancreatitis and kidney insufficiency
- underweight persons
- people with anorexia and/or bulimia
- chronic alcoholics
- people with peptic ulcer
- people who received transplant lately
- patients on dialysis
Composition formulas - citrate, carbonate, hydroxiapathite
- best utilization - citrate
- usually in combinations with vitamin D, magnesium and zinc
Other remarks - 99% of body calcium is contained in teeth and bones (hydroxiapatite)
- calcium is insoluble in alcohol and diluted solvents